Olea europaea

Olea europaea L.

Oleaceae

  • Olive Tree
  • زيتون
  • zaitoun
  • זַיִת אֵירוֹפִּי
  • zayit eiropi

Tree

  • Mediterranean maquis and forest
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distribution and other botanical details.

Medicinal Complaints / Uses

Olea europaea L.

System/StateTraditional
Complaint/Use
Activity / Interpretation Traditional
Preparation/Administration

Parts Used

Source
Cancer

Cancer

Anti-carcinogenic

1. Apply oil locally to wound (caused by cancer surgery) until recovery.
2. Add 250 mg of ground black cumin seeds (Nigella sativa) + 250 mg olive oil to 500 mg of honey; take x2 teaspoons/day until well.
3. Extract oil from olive fruits & take ½ cup/day + salt before breakfast until well.

RootZ
Cardiovascular

High blood pressure (Hypertension)

Hypotensive

1. Decoct leaves in water & drink x3 cups/day.(Z)
2. Decoct inflorescence & leaves & drink. (Z)
3. Decoct fruit & leaves & take orally. (B)

RootZ
Child Health

Strengthen bones in infants

Nutritive

Apply oil daily to skin all over child`s body.

RootZ
Dermatological

Dandruff/ hair strengthener

Anti-dandruff, Hair restorer

Apply oil to hair roots.

RootB
Dermatological

Eczema on hands

Anti-inflammatory

Squeeze fruit, remove oil & use remaining liquid ( "A'kar") to rub on hands.

RootB
Dermatological

Hair loss

Hair restorer

Massage oil externally on affected area as required.

RootB
Dermatological

Itch (pruritis)

Anti-pruritic

1. Mix olive oil + "'araq" (anise liquor) + kerosene + lemon juice + little salt & apply to whole body.
2. Mix olive oil + sulphur + sour lemon juice + salt + honey + "qutran" (Pix liquida or coal tar; see NOTES 3) & apply to itching area.
3. Mix olive oil + sulphur & apply to itching area.

RootB
Dermatological

Open boil

Anti-Infective, Vulnerary

Extract non-volatile oil (see NOTES 1) from fruit peel & add to any of the following: 1. Warm gum resin of Ferula asa-foetida + Cera flava (beeswax spread on a cloth) & apply to boil.
2. Camel manure (see CAUTIONS 2)
3. Colophony (resin from Pinus sp. & other conifers).
4. Ca(OH)2

LeafB
Dermatological

Ringworm on head (Tinea capitis) causing hair loss

Anti-fungal

Mix oil + sheep dung or cook olive oil + scorpions after removing sting. Make shallow scratches on head with razor blade & apply to head. (See CAUTIONS
2.)

RootZ
Dermatological

Skin diseases

Non-specific

Steep ground fruits in solution of cooking salt in water for 5 mths; filter & apply filtrate externally as lotion.

RootZ
Ear, Nose, Throat (ENT)

Ear inflammation

Anti-Infective

1.Apply oil externally to affected area.(B)
2. Extract non-volatile oil, (see NOTES 1) from olive peels & apply as ear drops.(Z)
3. Cook ground radish seeds in olive oil & apply as ear drops. (Z)

RootB
Ear, Nose, Throat (ENT)

Tinnitus, deafness

Anti-tinnitus

1. Extract non-volatile oil, (see NOTES 1) from olive peels & apply as ear drops.
2. Cook ground radish seeds in olive oil & apply as ear drops.

RootZ, B
Endocrine/ Metabolic

Diabetes mellitus

Hypoglycemic

1. Decoct leaves & inflorescence or leaves alone in water & drink x3 cups/day (Z).
2. Eat pickled green fruits. (Z)
3. Decoct fruit & leaves & take orally. (B)

RootZ
Gastrointestinal

Chronic dysentery;

Anti-Infective, Anti-diarrheal

Cook Eminium spiculatum in water then fry in olive oil; add lemon juice & eat.

GrainZ
Gastrointestinal

Constipation

Laxative

1. Drink mixture of olive oil + sugar before bedtime .
2. Extract non-volatile oil from fruit peel (see NOTES 1) & drink x1 cup mornings.

GrainZ
Gastrointestinal

Flatulence

Carminative

Apply oil to abdomen as required.

FruitZ
Gastrointestinal

Food poisoning

Anti-Infective

Drink x1 cup of oil.

FruitZ
Gastrointestinal

Gastric acidity

Antacid

Use crushed leaves. (Admin. not specified.)

GrainZ
Gastrointestinal

Haemorrhoids

Anti-haemorrhoidal

Boil Nerium oleander flowers in olive oil & spread on anus.

GrainZ
Gastrointestinal

Improve appetite

Stomachic

Eat fruits pickled in salt or vinegar.

GrainZ
Gastrointestinal

Inflammation stomach & digestive tract

Anti-inflammatory, Demulcent

1.Decoct leaves in water & drink x3 cups/day.
2. Decoct fruit in water & drink + sugar.

GrainZ
Gastrointestinal

Jaundice

Hepatic

Use crushed leaves. (Admin. not specified.)

GrainZ
Gastrointestinal

Nausea & vomiting

Anti-emetic

Eat fruits pickled in salt or vinegar.

Aerial partsB
Gastrointestinal

Regulate gastric function

Stomachic

1.Eat fruits pickled in salt or vinegar.
2. Drink x1 cup of oil on empty stomach mornings.

GrainZ
Gastrointestinal

Regulate hepatic/ biliary function

Chologogue, Hepatic

Drink x1 cup oil on empty stomach mornings.

GrainZ
General

Fever

Anti-pyretic

Warm non-volatile oil extracted from olive peels (see NOTES 1) & rub over body.

Grain, SeedB, Z
General

Prevent all diseases

Panacea

Drink x1 cup of oil on empty stomach mornings.

GrainZ
Haematology

Regulate spleen function

Alterative

Drink x1 cup of oil on empty stomach mornings.

GrainZ
Infectious Diseases

Malaria

Anti-malarial

Cook in water young olive branches + Cinchona sp. + Artemisia arborescens + magnesium sulphate + sour lemon; drink mornings.

GrainZ
Kidney & Urinary Tract

Kidney inflammation

Anti-inflammatory

Drink 1 full cup of oil x2 /day.

GrainZ
Kidney & Urinary Tract

Kidney stones

Anti-lithic

Drink x1 cup of oil mornings until cured.

Leaf, StemZ
Kidney & Urinary Tract

Kidney stones/ sand

Anti-lithic

1. Extract non-volatile oil (see NOTES 1) from fruit peels & drink x1 cup mornings.
2. For Kidney stones: drink 1 full cup x2/day morning & evenings for 40 days.

GrainZ
Kidney & Urinary Tract

Urinary obstruction

Deobstruent

Drink x1 cup of oil on empty stomach mornings.

GrainZ
Mens Health/ Sexuality

Male sexual frigidity

Aphrodisiac

Extract non-volatile oil (see NOTES 1) from fruit peels & drink x1 cup mornings.

GrainZ
Mental health

Soothe nerves

Anxiolytic

Boil leaves in water & drink x3 cups/day.

Grain, SeedB, Z
Musculoskeletal/ Joints

Muscle contraction & spasms of legs/ feet (B) Muscle cramps in face & body (Z)

Anti-spasmodic, Muscle relaxant

1.Massage oil externally over affected area as needed. (B)
2. Apply hot olive oil after a hot shower. (Z)
3. Boil mixture of olive oil + Ruta bracteosa + Nigella sativa & massage affected areas with hot oil after hot shower. (Z)
4. Warm husks of Triticum durum (wheat) in olive oil, spread over cloth & apply locally. (Z)
5.Boil root of Dittrichia viscosa in olive oil + "qizha" (Nigella sp.) + "feijan" (Ruta sp.) leaves & massage painful areas. (Z)

Aerial partsZ
Musculoskeletal/ Joints

Reset & mend an incorrectly healed bone fracture

Vulnerary

Cook aerial parts of Thymbra capitata + leaves/young branches of "kharub" (Ceratonia siliqua) + branches of "el-ghar" (Laurus nobilis) + branches of olive (Olea) + branches of "saris" (Pistacia lentiscus) + "maryameyeh" (Salvia fruticosa); hold broken limb over steam for few minutes. After removing bone can be re-broken with a light tap.

SeedZ
Musculoskeletal/ Joints

Rheumatic pain in back/legs/arms

Analgesic, Anti-arthritic, Anti-inflammatory

1. Decoct root in water & massage externally.
2. Boil root of Dittrichia viscosa in olive oil + "qizha" (Nigella sp.) + "feijan" (Ruta sp.) leaves & massage painful areas.
3. Cook ground fruits of Ammi visnaga in olive oil & use as massage.

Aerial partsB
Nervous System

Migraine

Analgesic

Boil non-volatile oil (see NOTES 1) from fruit peels (can use vinegar instead of olive oil) + ground, roasted seeds of Nigella sativa & inhale through nose.

Aerial partsB
Nervous System

Paralysis

Nervine

1. Cook 1 cup olive oil + 200 mg Ruta bracteosa in x3 cups of water & drink mornings.
2. Cook garlic (Allium sativum) in olive oil in closed vessel to obtain ointment & apply to affected area.

FlowerZ
Opthalmic

Eye lesions

Non-specific

Use crushed fresh fruit. (Admin. not specified.)

Aerial partsZ
Opthalmic

Strengthen vision

Visual health

Prepare salve from oil. (Admin. not specified.)

Aerial partsZ
Oral Health

Bad breath/ whiten & strengthen teeth & gums

Anti-caries, Anti-gum disease, Mouth wash

1. Cook olive leaves in water + mulberry (Morus sp.) leaves & drink.
2. Rinse mouth with olive oil or water in which fruits have been pickled (especially for strengthening teeth/gums).

Aerial partsZ
Oral Health

Toothache & dental caries

Analgesic, Anti-caries

1. Decoct root in water & gargle x3/day or as necessary.
2. Cook leaves in water, add alum (hydrated double sulphate salt of aluminium) & gargle.
3. Grind dried leaves into powder & after rinsing with "'araq" of date (date liquor) apply powder to painful area.
4. Chew tips of olive branches.
5. Cook Origanum sp. + olive oil + cumin + vinegar & apply to tooth.

Aerial partsZ
Pain Relief

Pain

Analgesic

Prepare salve from oil. (Admin. not specified.)

Aerial parts, LeafB, Z
Respiratory

Colds

Anti-Infective

Crush leaves (Admin. not specified.)

Aerial partsB
Respiratory

Cough

Anti-tussive

1.Mix olive oil + jam + honey & drink before sleeping. (Z)
2.Rub oil over chest. (B)

Aerial partsZ
Respiratory

Pulmonary diseases

Pectoral

Inhale incense made of olive pits (seeds).

Aerial partsZ
Surgical/ Trauma

Bleeding

Haemostatic

Apply oil externaly as poultice over wound.

LatexZ
Venoms, Bites & Stings

Dog bite

Anti-Infective, Vulnerary

Warm olive oil + ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) + cooking salt & apply to bite.

LeafZ
Venoms, Bites & Stings

Scorpion sting

Anti-venom

Kill several scorpions, immerse in olive oil & allow to stand. This mixture can be applied to scorpion sting. (See CAUTIONS
2.)

Aerial partsB
Women`s Health

Induce & alleviate labour

Oxytocic, Parturient

Decoct resin & drink.

LeafZ
Women`s Health

Reduce amount/ duration of menstrual bleeding

Emmenagogue

Decoct leaves in water: 1. Drink x2 cups/day. or
2. Add to bath & sit for 15 min.

LeafZ
Wound Healing

Burn & sunburn

Vulnerary

Extract non-volatile oil from olive peels (see NOTES 1) & apply to burn + any of the following ingredients (see also individula plants) : 1. Verbascum sinuatum (mix ground, dried powdered leaves + olive oil & apply)
2. Lawsonia inermis (mix powdered leaf + olive oil & apply to burn.
3. Coffea arabica; add round roasted grains after first applying olive oil
4. Quercus ithaburensis; apply olive oil to burn, then sprinkle with powdered gallnuts (see NOTE 2)
5. Rhamnus palaestina
6. Lens esculenta
7. Salt.

LeafZ
Wound Healing

Wound healing

Vulnerary

Crush leaves (Admin. not specified.)

FruitZ

Other Uses

Olea europaea L.

System/StateComplaint / Use Activity / Interpretation Preparation and Administration
Parts Used

Source
Cosmetic

Emollient /massage oil/ skin softener

Emollient

1. Use oil as basis for oily decoctions, salves & ointments.
2. Apply oil alone or mixed + other skin softening substances.

RootB
Industrial

Solvent for preparing traditional formulas/ salves

Preservative / solvent

Add to olive oil small pieces of plant to be used medicinally; steep for 4 weeks in sunlight & filter through cloth. (Preparation keeps for 1yr only, after which the oil becomes rancid). (See CAUTIONS
3.)

Grain, SeedZ, B

The authors of the Flora Palaestina Ethnobotany (FPE) web site do not take responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of the plants described here. Always seek advice from a health professional before using a plant medicinally or for other purposes

1. The oil used in these preparations is extracted from olive fruits. In many preparations Z describes the "permanent non-volatile faction of olive oil extracted from fruit peels". We believe this refers to the oil component that does not evaporate at room temperature. (See also Benincasa C et al (2012), "Non-volatile compounds of olive oil e.g. phenolic compounds stimulate taste receptors, bitterness perception, pungency, astringency etc. Volatile compounds, stimulate olfactory receptors, & are responsible for aroma of olive oil")
1. Olive oil should not be used in patients with bile stones as there are reports that it may cause biliary colic. Topical application with olive oil rarely may cause an allergic skin reaction.
2. In the recipes using olive oil for burns, ringworm etc.; addition of dung from various animals (e.g. camels) was an historical but long discredited way to treat these problems. It is highly dangerous & not recommended.
3. Z notes that some preparations using olive oil keep only for 1 year after which the oil becomes rancid.